Top Worries of CNOs in 2020

CNOs have a stressful role – it is tough being the biggest advocate for nurses in a healthcare organization, when up to 35% of the staff are nurses. There is a lot at stake and a lot of associates to lead. CNOs are responsible for quality, safety, patient satisfaction, labor, regulatory, compliance, budgets and the professional advancement of the members of their team. So as we peek into the new decade, what are the top concerns of CNOs?

Nurse Shortages and Attrition Leading to Erosion of Patient Care and Staff Morale

Healthcare organizations are facing growing challenges in finding the nurses they need. According to the AMN Healthcare Study “Worsening Shortages and Growing Consequences: CNO Survey on Nurse Supply and Demand,” many CNOs are citing that the nurse shortage at their organization is moderate to severe, and most say that this problem will become worse instead of better in the next five years. CNOs see shortages negatively affecting key components of care delivery: patient satisfaction, quality, and staff morale. And CNOs say the two greatest challenges to nurse recruitment are the lack of access to high-quality talent and the location of their organization; neither of those factors can be changed from within the organization itself. Some sources show that understaffing nurses can degrade the work environment and HCAHPS scores.

Nurse recruitment is really competitive now too, with salaries rising higher and higher. Nurses demand more perks, like flexible schedules. Hospitals are seeing nurses leaving for easier 9-5 shifts in outpatient settings, and jumping from system to system in pursuit of sign-on bonuses. Even in geographies where a nurse shortage is not as big of an issue, the nurse pipeline is primarily graduate nurses. Nearly 4 million millennials will enter the nursing profession from now until 2030 according to a recent Health Affairs study, which is a good thing. But there will be issues with dwindling workplace clinical and leadership experience on staff.
Read our related article, “Millennial Nurse Retention Strategies.”

Changing Technologies and Associated Training to Manage it

Nurse executives have been feeling technology fatigue lately, because of all the staff training involved. EHR, automated IV pumps, portable monitors, medication bar code scanning, smart beds, and centralized command centers are just a few recent tech upgrades. Besides just frustrations with scheduling constant training sessions, health IT can contribute to nurse burnout, as it demands more of nurses’ time. Work interruptions from constant alerts and alarms is hard, and if nurses see added IT processes with no measurable impact, it leads to more frustration. Systems are looking to technology to streamline work and make it more efficient in 2020, but there are growing pains as this happens.

Risk Pushed to Systems, Changing Politics, Changing Landscape

The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is accelerating risk-based payment models onto health systems, tying more Medicare payments to quality metrics. CMS got the ball rolling with its value-based programs and commercial insurers have followed behind. This leaves the strategic apex of health systems to manage the added uncertainty and risk associated with being reimbursed for outcomes. According to a recent survey by KPMG LLP, the U.S. audit, tax and advisory firm, a majority of healthcare providers expect their organization’s finances to suffer with the moves to value-based care. There is also uncertainty over what will happen in the upcoming big election in late 2020, and what that will mean for health delivery and payment. Some political candidates are campaigning against private insurers in lieu of paying providers CMS-level rates, which are lower margin or even below margin for services. While this may keep a hospital CFO up at night more than a CNO, uncertainty in the short-run is frustrating for all executives.

Disengaged Staff

A high-stress work environment can cause nurse burnout, which leads to disengagement on the job. Improper staffing levels caused by the nurse shortage is a factor in creating a stressful work environment. Professional growth and proper staffing levels are required to avoid disengagement.

Turnover Within the C-Suite

Continuous consolidation of healthcare organizations and retiring Baby Boom leaders are influencing these executive turnover rates. Constant change in the apex of an organization negatively affects care planning, and can lead to frustration and confusion on where the organization is headed.

Lack of Transformational Nurse Leaders – Young Nurses Not Pursuing Leadership

As Baby Boom nurses are retiring or cutting back hours, there is a void in leadership and experience. It makes sense that young nurses should apply and fill these leadership voids, but often times they do not. Finding good Nurse Managers is especially tough. Managers are responsible for staff, overseeing patient care, scheduling, meetings, and personnel and budget decisions. It comes with stress and work-life balance issues. See our related article, “Why Are Many Young Nurses Not Applying For Manager Roles?”

Another reason for young nurses not filling manager roles is that they had a bad first leadership experience, in the Charge RN role. If a nurse had a bad first leadership experience, his/her willingness to try another managerial position could be low. Some research shows that fear of failure is especially prevalent with Gen Y nurses.

There are many reasons why your young nurses may not be applying for management roles. In order to do more effective succession planning, pay attention to environmental factors in your unit that hinders willingness to accept leadership responsibilities. A program likeNCharge®: “Nurses Learning to Lead can help prepare your Charge Nurses for their first role in management. Courses like Charge Nurse Fundamentals, Critical Thinking for Charge Nurses, and Supervisory Skills for Positive Outcomes help young nurses practice skills like managing conflict, collaboration, delegation, and critical thinking. These courses learning objectives are also tied to business skills like learning about hospital financial indicators and how nursing work ties to VBP. NCharge® also helps participants understand financial indicators of success, and prepares nurses for higher level conversations to assist the Nurse Manager.

See related article, “6 Reason to Budget for Charge Nurse Development in 2020”



“Healthcare News: Nurse Leaders Say Nurse Shortages Erode Patient Care and Staff Morale,” AMN Healthcare
“Worsening Shortages and Growing Consequences: CNO Survey on Nurse Supply and Demand,” AMN Healthcare
“10 things keeping health system CEOs up at night,” Beckers Review, Molly Gamble/Ayla Ellison
“Top CNO Concerns,” Kristin Whitehead, HealthLinx
“Worries of the health system CEO,” Medi Leadership, September 27, 2019
“Nurse burnout? Try telehealth, clinical decision support and analytics tools, experts say,” Healthcare IT News, Bill Siwicki

3 Ways NCharge® Supports Magnet Applications

Transformational leadership is a key ingredient in establishing a nursing environment that achieves Magnet designation. Gradually, a transformational mindset should take root in the organization and become even stronger as other leaders adopt this way of thinking. Nurses in charge need to be developed, directed, and empowered to find the best way to accomplish the organizational goals and achieve desired outcomes. Where Transformational Leadership meets the Structural Empowerment domain is where Magnet nurses will shape dynamic change in healthcare and the nursing profession as a whole.

Magnet requires dedication of the entire nursing staff; it is almost 2020, and it is time to think about developing the first-level supervisory nurse, the nurse at the beginning of her career path. NCharge®: “Nurses Learning to Lead” can assist organizations either considering the Journey to Magnet Excellence, or in a re-application for Magnet status, within these application sections:


The CNO advocates for organizational support for ongoing leadership development for all nurses, with a focus on mentoring and succession planning. TL6 (pg. 32)

How does NCharge® support?

  • Partners with CNO to assure content delivery is aligned with priorities of the organization.
  • Introduces first-level nurse leaders to Value-Based Purchasing principles and financial implications of their work. It raises awareness of the importance of adopting evidence-based care standards, eliminating occurrences of untoward outcomes and adverse events, and improving patients’ experience of care. For a reference case study, read “Nemours Children’s Hospital Teaches Charge Nurses Financial Implications of Success.”
  • Supports the development of an adequate pipeline of future leaders who understand the CNO’s vision and how to drive to positive outcomes.
  • Demonstrates the organization’s investment in helping to assure that staff have a positive leadership experience, and pursue further leadership roles.

Provide an example, with supporting evidence, of mentoring or succession planning activities for clinical nurses.

How does NCharge® support?

  • Provides education on how to be a first-level nurse supervisor; it provides education to assist an organization’s future leaders to think critically, supervise, and lead change.
  • Assists with clinical nurses transitioning from a peer to leader.
  • Assists with creation of multiple Personal Action Plans and topics, to aid in creation of ways to use information learned when back in the unit.
  • Reinforces exercises like the 5 Rights of Delegation Model to help prepare first-level nurses for planning to lead a team, which is key for succession planning. Classes prepare leaders for qualities they will need, like teamwork and collaboration, ego management towards self/staff, innovative thinking, adapting to rapidly evolving roles, and confidence with compassion. For a reference case study, read “East Alabama Medical Center Develops a Nurse Succession Plan.”


2) STRUCTURAL EMPOWERMENT DOMAIN – Commitment to Professional Leaders
Structural Empowerment processes developed by influential leadership to create an environment where professional practice flourishes. Staff need to be developed and empowered to find the best way to accomplish goals, and reference the Forces of Magnetism for pillars like the image of nursing and professional development.

How does NCharge® support?

  • It includes the development of the trainers and builds the pipeline of future leaders. Professional development includes:
    • Transitioning from peer to leader
    • Leading quality initiatives
    • Critical thinking integrated with the Charge Nurse role in driving process improvement
    • Change leadership integrated with the Charge Nurse role in leading compliance and other quality initiatives
    • Confident communication, conflict management, and delegation
    • Employee engagement strategies, led by nurses, integrated with patients’ experience of care


Resources, such as professional literature, are readily available to support decision-making in autonomous nursing practice. How does your organization provide a dynamic learning environment that enhances the professional practice environment skills to build confidence and competence to manage common challenges Charge Nurses encounter?

How does NCharge® support?

  • NCharge® teaches keys of critical thinking for Charge Nurses. Courses teach evaluation and building initial analysis of making decisions, determining merit of information, and placing a judgment. It teaches deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, and using these tools to apply towards decision-making and critical thinking concepts. One course, Critical Thinking for Charge Nurses, teaches essential traits of critical thinkers with situations that Charge Nurses encounter.


For more information on how NCharge supports the Magnet Application or Reapplication, CLICK HERE.

Are you attending the Annual ANCC Conference in Orlando in October? CLICK HERE to set up a quick meet and greet with our team.

Charge Nurse Traits Which Clinical Nurses Value Most

Every nurse early in their career has had a Charge RN they did not want to work under on a shift. Ineffective shift leaders may lead “reactive” instead of proactive, be pessimistic, unpredictable, poor under stress, or may even find it challenging to relate to other nurses viewpoint. This is why nurse leaders with high tenants of Emotional Intelligence (EI) are effective, as they are able to consciously align their behaviors toward a desired outcome.

There have been many articles written about the relationship between high EI and effective leadership. Books like Emotional Intelligence 2.0 by Dr. Travis Bradbury and Dr. Jean Greaves gives a framework for why EI is especially important in healthcare. The more complex an organization is, the more it needs leaders who can navigate complex issues and work relationships. EI enables a nurse leader to gain trust and understand emotions. Cognitive skills are important too of course, but not as important as EI in complex healthcare systems.

While EI frameworks provide lists of skills and personality traits needed for effective leadership, what exactly are the top traits which clinical nurses cite looking for in their floor leader, the Charge Nurse? As Carol Holm identified in her presentation “Attributes in Leaders Most Desired by Clinical Nurses” at the AONE 2019 Annual Meeting, adaptability, stress management, empathy, and assertiveness are the EI attributes most desired by clinical nurses.

Adaptability is how a Charge Nurse shows potential for change management. It is the flexibility and willingness to adapt to new conditions. Here is a quick example: Recall a situation where bed capacity is an issue on the floor. A Charge is asked to put estimated discharge dates into records as well as likely beds to become available for patient placement. Charge Nurses may be asked to forecast throughput and document better practice. Charge RNs have to follow up with clinical nurses to be better at disclosing information for records. Some Charge RNs can engage clinical nurses to be better and get buy-in to processes, and some do not. Clinical nurses look for a leader to push towards doing their records better, and organizations rely on adaptable leaders to champion change and processes.

Stress Management
The next most important trait which clinical nurses desire for their Charge RN is the ability to handle stress. Clinical nurses have all been through situations where the team is short-staffed due to call-ins or other factors, and a floor leaders ability to rally a team is vital. Besides just morale, what about a stressed out patient or patient’s family member with unrealistic expectations for that shift? A Charge RNs ability to support co-workers during times of stress is critical and supports the entire team.

Empathy in a first-level supervisory nurse is a top correlated trait with clinical nurse job satisfaction. It is the ability to stand in someone else’s shoes and see other viewpoints. When “life happens” to bedside nurses, they want to feel like the Charge Nurse is there for support. And when empathy is not demonstrated, it leads to low nurse job satisfaction. Especially during nursing shortages, this is a top personality trait, and is also a crutch pillar of high EI.

This is the 4th highest rated trait which clinical nurses look for in a Charge RN. Nurses want a Charge RN who can stand up for the team and be forthright with leadership when appropriate to do so. This is the ability to say in a non-offensive way what needs to be said, and when to say it. For example, a Charge needs to be able to advocate for additional support in a particular shift, possibly due to the acuity on that shift. Having an assertive nurse leader is also linked with patient safety and quality of care.

While these are the top 4, other important traits which nurses look for in their first-level supervisory nurse are optimism, self-motivation, social awareness, and impulse control. In total, these eight traits are vital to having high EI and leading teams.

How can healthcare institutions encourage a culture of high EI?
• Promote nurses into leadership with identified traits of success – adaptability, stress management, empathy, and assertiveness.
• Use EI testing to screen nurse leader applications
• Encourage sharing of EI assessment scores among nurse co-workers. Have Charge Nurses find improvement areas by choosing a trait of impact focus based on their EI scores, and have them work with a colleague, mentor, or coach on that area of focus. There are many EI tests available for purchase.
• Purchase courses or libraries for EI education/training for Charge Nurses. Integrate Charge Nurse training into position descriptions, and use this nurse leadership development as a catalyst to start conversations on how to be an effective Charge RN.

Catalyst Learning offers its series NCharge®: “Nurses Learning to Lead.” Courses like Charge Nurse Fundamentals offer learning objectives like application of qualities for successful Charge Nurse leadership. It also teaches nurses to create an individual action plan to identify challenges and maximize opportunities faced in a complex hospital environment – a skill crucial to EI. A second NCharge course, Critical Thinking Skills For Charge Nurses, teaches nurses to apply critical-thinking skills to the decision-making process. Feel free to contact us to learn more.

“Attributes in Leaders Most Desired by Clinical Nurses”

Carol Holm at AONE 2019, Oregon Health & Science University and Academic Medical Center

How the CNO Drives Nurse Engagement

What is employee engagement? Gallup defines it as the level of commitment, passion and loyalty a worker has towards their work and their organization. CNOs can take action to drive nurse engagement; in fact Magnet hospitals are even graded on engagement metrics like leadership access/responsiveness and RN to RN teamwork and collaboration.

To help a nurse executive to be “visible” and lead organizations with dedicated nurses, here are a few tactics a CNO can use to drive nurse engagement:

Be Intentional About Nurse Recognition
One employment stat by Gallup shows that employees who receive senior-level recognition 3x or more in a quarter are twice as likely to stay with an organization. So recognize good work! Here are a few examples:
-Publish good works on the health system intranet, or even start a company/unit newsletter.
-Have contests tied to recognition received. Let the prize be “Be CNO for a Day!” Your nurses may even appreciate how hard it is to run a hospital.
-Celebrate your nurses’ certifications. Show that professional growth is noticed, valued, and contributes to long-term hospital success.

Enforce Patient Stories, Periods of Caring
Remind your nurses why they became a nurse, and give permission to spend time with patients, and collect stories from care and patient attention given. Let nurses know it is important to hold onto these moments and share if possible. A few examples:
-Redesign/Rethink the Care Delivery Model. In doing this, work in solutions to give nurses time at the bedside. Some nurse leaders adopt Swanson’s Caring Theory, which calls for nurses to take 5-minutes to get to know their patients. Ask nurses to share these stories from moments of caring.
-Give positive reinforcement to nurses for telling stories of caring. One CNO from Baystate Medical Center (MA) is so serious about enforcing stories of caring, that she passes out coffee shop gift cards at random intervals if a nurse can quickly tell her a unique patient story and how care delivered impacted the patient and nurse. This reinforces the importance of periods of caring, and shows nurses it is OK to spend a few moments just talking with patients and learning about them.

Increase Nurse Autonomy, and get Nurse Feedback
Think about a more collaborative shared governance model, and make sure your leaders buy-in. Shared governance will not work without the backing of managers and directors. Plus use a few of these tactics to show nurses you trust their judgment and ideas:
-Create nurse councils to address issues which leadership may not be noticing. For example, start a “night shift council” that meets monthly. Issues the night staff nurses face may be much different from other nurses. Night shift nurses may not deal with staffing issues for instance, they may have problems arising from Nutrition or Environmental Services which can more easily be fixed with attention and planning. And with a council, nurses will see that their input is being listened to.
-Increase the number and availability of nurse driven protocols.
-Use surveys to learn about nurse frustration points which may otherwise go unnoticed. You may not like what you hear, but you may also find out that untrue organization rumors are driving negative perceptions, giving you an opportunity to dispel rumors or false gossip. CNOs have enough on their plate without having to deal with issues that are imagined or perceived. And with surveys, don’t hand them out during busy periods and ask for them back in 5-minutes. Give your nurses a quiet moment to reflect off-the-floor, to help make answers meaningful.

Be Visible
Show your nurses that you are a part of the team and understand their issues:
-Consider doing a bi-weekly open coffee time, where nurses can come talk to you about issues they are facing.
-Be the first cheerleader when recognitions, certifications, or professional growth are achieved. Others will follow your lead and create a ripple effect.
-Since a CNO can’t be everywhere and cannot possibly “coach” every associate, assign a senior nurse resource for less experienced nurses. This will allow for discussions and mentoring without nurses feeling fear of retribution for speaking out or voicing concerns.

Organize a few “big deal” events
Plan fun outings or events to show nurse appreciation. Let nurses know that the organization doesn’t work without them! Feel free to tie “big deal” events to stories/periods of caring (previously mentioned):
-Don’t over think it here, have a “decorate an Easter basket contest,” a Yoga retreat, organize a dance class, go to a baseball game. Celebrate and recognize caring behavior as a group.
-Volunteer as an organization or get involved in the community somehow.
-Establish a few self-care practices or resources internally to help nurses build resiliency and work-life balance. Even if they do not participate it will show you value well-being.

-AONE 2019 session, “Let’s Get Visible, and Drive Nurse Engagement;” Christine Klucznik, Baystate Medical Center
-“Tips from CNOs on Increasing Nurse Engagement in 2018;” Avant Health, Shari Costantini

Top 10 CNO Resolutions for 2019

1) Improve your coaching mindset – Retaining nurses will require adjusting styles to adapt to a new generation of nurses
What nurses expect from their leaders is changing. Gone are the days of command control leadership when staff were expected to be grateful because they had a job. Today’s nurses, especially the Millennial workforce, want their leaders to be coaches who help them to learn and grow as professionals. Retaining nurses requires adjusting styles to adapt to this new generation. When nurses don’t receive the coaching and feedback they desire, they may be more likely to leave, as evidenced by high nursing turnover in many healthcare organizations. In 2019, think about how to create a competitive edge by adjusting your leadership style.

Self-reflection can be difficult, so feel free to playback Catalyst Learning’s webinar with Dr. Rose Sherman, as she discusses ways to create a coaching mindset with nurse staff. Viewers must have Adobe Connect installed.

2) Be a continuous learner, and encourage your staff to do the same
Lifelong learning offers individuals the opportunity to keep current skills up to date, and to pursue a wide variety of interests. Healthcare is a constantly changing field with advances in medicine, expansion of evidence sources, new treatments and care model/regulation updates. For CNOs, new challenges affecting the clinical workforce require leaders to take management courses, obtain certifications, attend conferences, and stay current on updated regulations and care model delivery to be effective.

Advocate for your staff to be continuous learners as well! A nurse may want to consider learning another clinical area and/or obtain a specialty certification to augment current knowledge; encourage staff to stay informed and share their learnings with the unit.

3) Prepare nurse staff to lead
In 2019, there is excitement and intention around preparing less experienced nurses for future leadership roles. While looming Baby Boom nurse retirements are on hospital leadership radar, C-Suite Nursing leaders are acknowledging the valuable role that first-level supervisory nurses play. Preparing inexperienced nurses to lead will help them have more informed conversations with Nurse Managers, will aid in nurse retention, job morale, and will set the stage for nurses to have a positive first experience as a leader. Nurses who have a bad first leadership experience (usually in the Charge RN role) often do not pursue future leadership roles.

See our related article, “6 Reasons to Budget for Charge Nurse Development in 2019.” 

4) Practice self-care, and realize you cannot do everything
This sounds like a no-brainer for busy executives. We know that self-care involves obvious health practices: physical activity, self-pampering, adequate sleep, quiet time for reflection, putting your phone down every now and then, and shutting your door sometimes so you can get work done.

While self-care as a stress management tactic is necessary, don’t forget to consider the root causes of the stress. Instead of accepting the explanation of “I have too much on my plate,” write down the key stressor(s). Is there an unrealistic deadline looming? Are the yearly goals you’re aiming for a moving target? Figure out how to fix the issue, rather than only managing the stress felt as a result. If too many tasks are the main stressor, think about a shared governance model to boost production, leading to group problem solving. Delegating scheduling to another person can help get back chunks of time during the week. Acknowledging that you cannot do this role alone is a great step in self-care.

Lastly, don’t be afraid to say “no.” Executives may tend to think they achieved their position by saying “yes” to every challenge that came their way. But don’t get trapped into that line of thinking, and don’t be afraid to set boundaries.

5) Encourage staff (and maybe yourself) to coach new nurse graduates
New graduates entering the workforce may not be ready for 12 hour shifts and the stress of their new role. These graduates often become frustrated as they experience the real world of healthcare. Many nurses will burnout and find new employment opportunities after only a few years. Successful coaching will make a significant difference in reducing frustration of novice nurses, and can help with retention. Some experienced nurses may feel burned out and not willing to make a commitment to coaching, but this year challenge these nurses to volunteer to coach. Remind your team that a coaching contribution could have a more profound effect than anything else they do as a professional.

6) Build nurse networks outside your organization
Unfortunately, social/work networking comes easier for most nurse executives than developing professional non-work networks. After all, most nurse leaders originally come to the nursing profession to help people, not to “schmooze” like a sales person. To make networking palpable, think of networking as a tool to “knowledge share”and help with mutual professional development. A network of nurse executives in other organizations can help you find information, give referrals, and offer someone to confide in for guidance and support. Remember- the best time to build your network is before you need it! Start with events to build your network. Leadership summits like CNO Academy can help you to network within smaller cohorts.


7) Seek and give timely feedback
This is truly a two-way street. It is important to not only give timely, specific feedback to your staff, but to also proactively seek feedback about your own performance. This is one of the best ways to continue career growth. Don’t hesitate to coach up nurses who are not performing as well as they could be, and let low performers go quickly when necessary. They can begin to drag on the organization quickly, so make sure to give timely feedback in 2019.

8) Nominate staff for recognition
When leaders fail to thank others, or take all the recognition for themselves, staff feel devalued. A key part of encouraging staff is to recognize contributions in a way that is valued by the person and celebrated by the team.When nurses in your organization make significant impacts that deserve recognition, be the first cheerleader to celebrate that contribution by letting the company know. Being the top advocate for the nursing profession at your health system means sharing recognition, whether internal or external. Be sure to attend recognition celebrations in person.

9) Build a nurse succession plan

In the coming year, top nurse executives are focusing on consistent development for nurses, including those nurses who are at the start of their leadership path. Systems don’t stumble on a strategic succession plan, it takes preparation and organization buy-in. So, in 2019, be intentional about identifying talent and teaching the next wave of leaders, especially young ones. Equipping Gen Y nurses with the leadership and business skills needed for advancement is an important step in developing nurse leader pipelines. Provide this generation of young nurses the ability to handle communication, conflict resolution, and challenges in managing change that they will face. To learn about NCharge: “Nurses Learning to Lead” please click here.

10) Up your game in technology – Be ready to advocate for it
A CNO should play a critical role in how an organization selects, implements, and adopts technology. In an ideal setting, the CNO creates a culture of shared decision making by asking others to participate in technology planning. However, technology implementation efforts can sometimes be unsuccessful and have unintended risks or issues. In 2019, embrace new technology, or work to simplify old tech processes. Be the first to volunteer to attend classes and serve as a champion for new technology or changes in practice. This could be the symbolic leadership gesture that gets buy-in needed from nursing staff.
  • “Develop a Coaching Mindset with your Nurses” November 3, 2018. Webinar with Dr. Rose Sherman and Catalyst Learning Company
  • “5 Ways To Practice Self-Care, Even as a CEO” Brian Wong, magazine, August 31 2018
  • “The Value of Lifelong Learning Throughout a Healthcare Career,” HealthStream, Diane Hanson, CNO at EBSCO Health, October 11, 2018
  • “12 Networking Tips Executives Need for Success” by Louise Garver
  • “If I knew then what I know now: Advice for Nurse Leaders from a former CNO,” Studer Group September 2018
  • “Leadership goal setting for the New Year,” Rose O. Sherman, December 28 2017, Emerging RN Leader
  • “6 Reasons to Budget for Charge Nurse Development in 2019,” Catalyst Learning blog, January 2019
  • “Nurse leaders discuss the nurse’s role in driving technology decisions” American Nurse Today